Cartel Agreement Nedir
A cartel has less control over a sector than a monopoly – a situation in which a group or company has almost all or almost the market for a particular product or service. Some cartels are formed to influence the price of goods and services legally traded, while others exist in illegal industries such as drug trafficking. In the United States, virtually all cartels, regardless of their field of activity, are illegal under U.S. cartel and abuse of dominance legislation. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is the largest cartel in the world. It is a group of 14 oil-producing countries tasked with coordinating and unifying the oil policy of their member countries and ensuring the stabilization of oil markets. OPEC`s activities are legal because U.S. foreign trade laws protect them. The best known example is the Medellin cartel, led by Pablo Escobar in the 1980s until his death in 1993. The cartel is known to have smuggled large quantities of cocaine into the United States and was known for its violent methods.
Sanctions for companies that break competition rules can be very severe. In the case of breaches of cartels, the highest fine imposed on a single company amounts to more than 896 million euros; the largest fine imposed on all members of a single cartel amounts to more than 1.3 billion euros. In June 2006, the Commission revised its guidelines for calculating competition fines. These revised guidelines will often result in much higher fines for cartels than before. Amid the controversy of the mid-2000s, concerns about retaliation and potential negative effects on U.S. companies led to the obstruction of the U.S. Congressional attempt to punish OPEC as an illegal cartel. Despite the fact that OPEC is considered by most to be a cartel, OPEC members said it was not a cartel at all, but an international organization with a legal, permanent and necessary mission. An agreement is an organization established from a formal agreement between a group of producers of a good or service to regulate the offer of price regulation or manipulation.
In other words, a cartel is a collection of otherwise independent companies or countries that act together as if they were a single producer and can therefore set the prices of the goods they produce and the services they produce without competition. Kartell kelimesi éngilizce`de ne demek, ne anlama gelir, Turké e anlalé nedir ve cartel`ngilizce okunu`u yaz`mézda. Ayrca cartel kelimesinin isim, fiil ve di`er anlamlar`neler, cartel kelimesi k-keni ve nerede kullan`l`r detaylé olarak `renebilirsiniz. At the end of the 19th century: by German kartell, French map, Italian map, small car, map1.